The ideal is that it is the former. To me, the word ‘educate’ means to inform without prescription but the reality is that places of learning are under pressure to deliver results in exams set from a rigid curriculum. They are being judged on how well their student perform in tests. So the easy route is to teach students to pass the test rather than to understand the subject.
The problem with this is that we stop teaching children how to think. But more than that is that the people teaching them are deemed to be ‘experts’. But as the talk from Noreena Hertz explains, you shouldn’t always take teachers and experts, as a whole, at their word.
This is not to suggest that they should be questioned at every stage, but they should engage their students in their subjects rather than in the books (or passages within) that accompany those subjects. The best teachers make subjects come alive and should feel free to do so.